r0man.sqlingvo

https://github.com/r0man/sqlingvo.git

git clone 'https://github.com/r0man/sqlingvo.git'

(ql:quickload :r0man.sqlingvo)
182

[[https://clojars.org/sqlingvo]] [[https://travis-ci.org/r0man/sqlingvo]] [[https://versions.deps.co/r0man/sqlingvo]] [[https://versions.deps.co/r0man/sqlingvo]]

/SQLingvo/ is an embedded [[https://clojure.org]] and [[https://github.com/clojure/clojurescript]] /DSL/ that allows you to build /SQL/ statements within your favorite /LISP/. The /SQL/ statements used by /SQLingvo/ are compatible with the [[https://github.com/funcool/clojure.jdbc]], [[https://github.com/clojure/java.jdbc]], [[https://github.com/alaisi/postgres.async]] and [[https://github.com/brianc/node-postgres]] libraries.

If you want to execute /SQL/ statements on [[https://nodejs.org]], take a look at [[https://github.com/r0man/sqlingvo.node]].

Note: /SQLingvo/ is designed for the [[http://www.postgresql.org/]] database management system. That said, if you can avoid /PostgreSQL/ specific features, you might be lucky and use it with other databases as well.

[[https://xkcd.com/1409]]

** Usage

/SQLingvo/ shadows some functions from the =clojure.core= namespace, such as =distinct=, =group-by= and =update= functions. It's recommended to require the =sqlingvo.core= namespace via an alias, such as =sql=.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent (require '[sqlingvo.core :as sql]) #+END_SRC

** Database specification

/SQLingvo/ uses a database specification to configure how /SQL/ identifiers are quoted and column and table names are translated between /Clojure/ and your database. The following code defines a database specification using the naming and quoting strategy for /PostgreSQL/.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent (def my-db (sql/db :postgresql)) #+END_SRC

Such a database specification is needed by all functions that produce /SQL/ statements. The following code uses the database specification =my-db= to build a simple /SELECT/ statement.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (sql/sql (sql/select my-db [:first-name] (sql/from :people))) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT "first-name" FROM "people"”]

* Naming strategy

The naming strategy is used to configure how column and table
names are translated between /Clojure/ and the /SQL/ dialect of the
database. The strategy can be configured with the =:sql-name=
entry in a database specification.

The default strategy used is =clojure.core/name=, which translates
a /Clojure/ keyword to a string.

A common use case is to translate from a keyword to a string and
replace all hyphens with underscores. This can be done with the
following code:

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent
  (require '[clojure.string :as str])

  (defn underscore [s]
    (str/replace (name s) "-" "_"))

  (def my-db' (sql/db :postgresql {:sql-name underscore}))
#+END_SRC

All the hyphens in column and table names are now translated to
underscores.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/sql (sql/select my-db' [:first-name]
             (sql/from :people)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT \"first_name\" FROM \"people\""]

* Quoting strategy

The quoting strategy defines how column and table names are quoted
when building /SQL/. The strategy can be configured with the
=:sql-quote= entry in a database specification.

You could change the quoting strategy with the following code:

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent
  (require '[sqlingvo.util :refer [sql-quote-backtick]])
  (def my-db' (sql/db :postgresql {:sql-quote sql-quote-backtick}))
#+END_SRC

Now the column and table names are quoted with back ticks, instead
of double quotes.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/sql (sql/select my-db' [:first-name]
             (sql/from :people)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT `first-name` FROM `people`"]

* Placeholder strategy

The placeholder strategy defines how placeholders for /SQL/
parameters are generated when building statements. The default
=sql-placeholder-constant= strategy always uses the string =?=,
the =sql-placeholder-count= strategy uses increasing values
starting from =$1=, =$2=, etc.

The strategy can be configured with the =:sql-placeholder= entry
in a database specification.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent
  (require '[sqlingvo.util :refer [sql-placeholder-count]])
  (def my-db' (sql/db :postgresql {:sql-placeholder sql-placeholder-count}))
#+END_SRC

Now, the placeholders for /SQL/ parameters will contain the index
number of the parameter. Use this strategy if you are using
/SQLingvo/ with [[https://github.com/alaisi/postgres.async][postgres.async]].

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/sql (sql/select my-db'  [:*]
             (sql/from :distributors)
             (sql/where '(and (= :dname "Anvil Distribution")
                              (= :zipcode "21201")))))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"distributors\" WHERE ((\"dname\" = $1) and (\"zipcode\" = $2))" "Anvil Distribution" "21201"]

** SQL statement

/SQLingvo/ comes with functions for common /SQL/ commands like =select=, =insert=, =update= and more. These functions return an instance of =sqlingvo.expr.Stmt=, a data structure that can be compiled into /SQL/ with the =sql= function, or used by other functions to build derived statements.

Here's an example:

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent (def commendy-films-stmt (sql/select my-db [:id :name] (sql/from :films) (sql/where '(= :kind “Comedy”)))) #+END_SRC

In the code above we select all the =id= and =name= columns of all rows in the =films= table that have a =kind= column with the value =Comedy=. The call to the =select= function returns and instance of =sqlingvo.expr.Stmt=, which is bound to the =commendy-films-stmt= var.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (class commendy-films-stmt) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : sqlingvo.expr.Stmt

This instance can be compiled into /SQL/ with the =sql= function. The result is a /Clojure/ vector with the first entry being the compiled /SQL/ string and the remaining entries the prepared statement parameters.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (sql/sql commendy-films-stmt) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT "id", "name" FROM "films" WHERE ("kind" = ?)” “Comedy”]

Those vectors could be fed to the [[https://github.com/funcool/clojure.jdbc]] and [[https://github.com/clojure/java.jdbc]] libraries to actually execute a statement.

** Printing in the REPL

There is a =print-method= defined for the =sqlingvo.expr.Stmt= class, so instances of a statement are printed in their compiled from. This is convenient when building /SQL/ statements in the /REPL/. If you type the following example directly into your /REPL/, it prints out the compiled form of the statement.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (sql/select my-db [:id :name] (sql/from :films) (sql/where '(= :kind “Comedy”))) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT "id", "name" FROM "films" WHERE ("kind" = ?)” “Comedy”]

But the return value of the call to the =select= function above is still an instance of =sqlingvo.expr.Stmt=.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (class *1) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : sqlingvo.expr.Stmt

** SQL expressions

/SQLingvo/ compiles /SQL/ expressions from /Clojure/ prefix notation into /SQL/. There's built-in support for special operators, such as =+=, =-=, =*=, =/= and many others.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (sql/select my-db [1 ‘(+ 2 (abs 3)) ’(upper “Hello”)]) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT 1, (2 + abs(3)), upper(?)” “Hello”]

You can influence the compilation of functions by extending the =compile-fn= multi method. In case a function uses a special compilation rule that is not built in, take a look at the multi method implementation of =substring= to see how to create your own compilation rule. Or even better, send a PR …

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (sql/select my-db ['(substring “Fusion” from 2 for 3)]) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT substring(? from 2 for 3)” “Fusion”]

** Syntax quoting

When using /SQLingvo/ to build parameterized /SQL/ statements, you often want to use the parameters in a /SQL/ expression. This can be accomplished with syntax quoting. Note the back tick character in the =where= clause.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent (defn films-by-kind [db kind] (sql/select db [:id :name] (sql/from :films) (sql/where `(= :kind ~kind)))) #+END_SRC

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim (films-by-kind my-db “Action”) #+END_SRC

#+RESULTS: : [“SELECT "id", "name" FROM "films" WHERE ("kind" = ?)” “Action”]

** Detailed SQL examples

The following examples show how to build /SQL/ statements found in the /PostgreSQL/ [[https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.5/interactive/index.html]] with /SQLingvo/. Note that we don't call the =sql= function anymore, because we are only interested in the printed result.

* Copy

Copy from standard input.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/copy my-db :country []
    (sql/from :stdin))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["COPY \"country\" FROM STDIN"]

Copy data from a file into the country table.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/copy my-db :country []
    (sql/from "/usr1/proj/bray/sql/country_data"))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["COPY \"country\" FROM ?" "/usr1/proj/bray/sql/country_data"]

Copy data from a file into the country table with columns in the given order.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/copy my-db :country [:id :name]
    (sql/from "/usr1/proj/bray/sql/country_data"))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["COPY \"country\" (\"id\", \"name\") FROM ?" "/usr1/proj/bray/sql/country_data"]

* Create table

Define a new database table.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/create-table my-db :films
    (sql/column :code :char :length 5 :primary-key? true)
    (sql/column :title :varchar :length 40 :not-null? true)
    (sql/column :did :integer :not-null? true)
    (sql/column :date-prod :date)
    (sql/column :kind :varchar :length 10)
    (sql/column :len :interval)
    (sql/column :created-at :timestamp-with-time-zone :not-null? true :default '(now))
    (sql/column :updated-at :timestamp-with-time-zone :not-null? true :default '(now)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["CREATE TABLE \"films\" (\"code\" CHAR PRIMARY KEY, \"title\" VARCHAR NOT NULL, \"did\" INTEGER NOT NULL, \"date-prod\" DATE, \"kind\" VARCHAR, \"len\" INTERVAL, \"created-at\" TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE NOT NULL DEFAULT now(), \"updated-at\" TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE NOT NULL DEFAULT now())"]

* Delete

Clear the table films.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/delete my-db :films)
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["DELETE FROM \"films\""]

Delete all films but musicals.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/delete my-db :films
    (sql/where '(<> :kind "Musical")))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["DELETE FROM \"films\" WHERE (\"kind\" <> ?)" "Musical"]

Delete completed tasks, returning full details of the deleted rows.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/delete my-db :tasks
    (sql/where '(= :status "DONE"))
    (sql/returning :*))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["DELETE FROM \"tasks\" WHERE (\"status\" = ?) RETURNING *" "DONE"]

* Insert

**** Insert expressions

 Insert expressions into the =films= table.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :films [:code :title :did :date-prod :kind]
     (sql/values [['(upper "t_601") "Yojimbo" 106 "1961-06-16" "Drama"]]))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" (\"code\", \"title\", \"did\", \"date-prod\", \"kind\") VALUES (upper(?), ?, 106, ?, ?)" "t_601" "Yojimbo" "1961-06-16" "Drama"]

 Insert expressions and default values into the =films= table.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :films []
     (sql/values [["UA502" "Bananas" 105 :DEFAULT "Comedy" "82 minutes"]
                  ["T_601" "Yojimbo" 106 :DEFAULT "Drama" :DEFAULT]]))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" VALUES (?, ?, 105, DEFAULT, ?, ?), (?, ?, 106, DEFAULT, ?, DEFAULT)" "UA502" "Bananas" "Comedy" "82 minutes" "T_601" "Yojimbo" "Drama"]

**** Insert records

 Insert records into the =films= table.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :films []
     (sql/values [{:code "B6717" :title "Tampopo" :did 110 :date-prod "1985-02-10" :kind "Comedy"},
                  {:code "HG120" :title "The Dinner Game" :did 140 :date-prod "1985-02-10" :kind "Comedy"}]))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" (\"code\", \"date-prod\", \"did\", \"kind\", \"title\") VALUES (?, ?, 110, ?, ?), (?, ?, 140, ?, ?)" "B6717" "1985-02-10" "Comedy" "Tampopo" "HG120" "1985-02-10" "Comedy" "The Dinner Game"]

**** Insert returning records

 Insert a row into the =films= table and return the inserted records.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :films []
     (sql/values [{:code "T_601" :title "Yojimbo" :did 106 :date-prod "1961-06-16" :kind "Drama"}])
     (sql/returning :*))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" (\"code\", \"date-prod\", \"did\", \"kind\", \"title\") VALUES (?, ?, 106, ?, ?) RETURNING *" "T_601" "1961-06-16" "Drama" "Yojimbo"]

**** Insert default values

 Insert a row consisting entirely of default values.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :films []
     (sql/values :default))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" DEFAULT VALUES"]

**** Insert from a select statement

 Insert rows into the =films= table from the =tmp-films= table
 with the same column layout as films.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/insert my-db :films []
    (sql/select my-db [:*]
      (sql/from :tmp-films)
      (sql/where '(< :date-prod "2004-05-07"))))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"films\" SELECT * FROM \"tmp-films\" WHERE (\"date-prod\" < ?)" "2004-05-07"]

**** Insert or update rows on conflict

 Insert or update new distributors as appropriate. Assumes a unique
 index has been defined that constrains values appearing in the did
 column. Note that the special excluded table is used to reference
 values originally proposed for insertion:

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :distributors [:did :dname]
     (sql/values [{:did 5 :dname "Gizmo Transglobal"}
                  {:did 6 :dname "Associated Computing, Inc"}])
     (sql/on-conflict [:did]
       (sql/do-update {:dname :EXCLUDED.dname})))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"distributors\" (\"did\", \"dname\") VALUES (5, ?), (6, ?) ON CONFLICT (\"did\") DO UPDATE SET \"dname\" = EXCLUDED.\"dname\"" "Gizmo Transglobal" "Associated Computing, Inc"]

**** Insert or do nothing on conflict

 Insert a distributor, or do nothing for rows proposed for
 insertion when an existing, excluded row (a row with a matching
 constrained column or columns after before row insert triggers
 fire) exists. Example assumes a unique index has been defined that
 constrains values appearing in the did column:

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :distributors [:did :dname]
     (sql/values [{:did 7 :dname "Redline GmbH"}])
     (sql/on-conflict [:did]
       (sql/do-nothing)))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"distributors\" (\"did\", \"dname\") VALUES (7, ?) ON CONFLICT (\"did\") DO NOTHING" "Redline GmbH"]

**** Insert or update rows on conflict with condition

 Don't update existing distributors based in a certain ZIP code.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db (as :distributors :d) [:did :dname]
     (sql/values [{:did 8 :dname "Anvil Distribution"}])
     (sql/on-conflict [:did]
       (sql/do-update {:dname '(:|| :EXCLUDED.dname " (formerly " :d.dname ")")})
       (sql/where '(:<> :d.zipcode "21201"))))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"distributors\" AS \"d\" (\"did\", \"dname\") VALUES (8, ?) ON CONFLICT (\"did\") DO UPDATE SET \"dname\" = (EXCLUDED.\"dname\" || ? || \"d\".\"dname\" || ?) WHERE (\"d\".\"zipcode\" <> ?)" "Anvil Distribution" " (formerly " ")" "21201"]

**** Insert or do nothing by constraint

 Name a constraint directly in the statement. Uses associated index
 to arbitrate taking the /DO NOTHING/ action.

 #+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
   (sql/insert my-db :distributors [:did :dname]
     (sql/values [{:did 9 :dname "Antwerp Design"}])
     (sql/on-conflict-on-constraint :distributors_pkey
       (sql/do-nothing)))
 #+END_SRC

 #+RESULTS:
 : ["INSERT INTO \"distributors\" (\"did\", \"dname\") VALUES (9, ?) ON CONFLICT ON CONSTRAINT \"distributors_pkey\" DO NOTHING" "Antwerp Design"]

* Join

Join the =weathers= table with the =cities= table.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :weather)
    (sql/join :cities.name :weather.city))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"weather\" JOIN \"cities\" ON (\"cities\".\"name\" = \"weather\".\"city\")"]

The code above is a common use case and is syntactic sugar for the
following. Use this version if you want to join on an arbitrary
SQL expression.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :weather)
    (sql/join :cities '(on (= :cities.name :weather.city))))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"weather\" JOIN \"cities\" ON (\"cities\".\"name\" = \"weather\".\"city\")"]

The type of join can be given as a keyword argument.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :weather)
    (sql/join :cities '(on (= :cities.name :weather.city)) :type :inner))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"weather\" INNER JOIN \"cities\" ON (\"cities\".\"name\" = \"weather\".\"city\")"]

* Select

Select all films.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :films))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"films\""]

Select all Comedy films.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :films)
    (sql/where '(= :kind "Comedy")))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"films\" WHERE (\"kind\" = ?)" "Comedy"]

Retrieve the most recent weather report for each location.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db (sql/distinct [:location :time :report] :on [:location])
    (sql/from :weather-reports)
    (sql/order-by :location (desc :time)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT DISTINCT ON (\"location\") \"location\", \"time\", \"report\" FROM \"weather-reports\" ORDER BY \"location\", \"time\" DESC"]

* Update

Change the word =Drama= to =Dramatic= in the =kind= column of the
=films= table.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/update my-db :films {:kind "Dramatic"}
    (sql/where '(= :kind "Drama")))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["UPDATE \"films\" SET \"kind\" = ? WHERE (\"kind\" = ?)" "Dramatic" "Drama"]

Change all the values in the =kind= column of the table =films= to
upper case.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/update my-db :films {:kind '(upper :kind)})
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["UPDATE \"films\" SET \"kind\" = upper(\"kind\")"]

* Order by

The sort expression(s) can be any expression that would be valid in the query's select list.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:a :b]
    (sql/from :table-1)
    (sql/order-by '(+ :a :b) :c))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT \"a\", \"b\" FROM \"table-1\" ORDER BY (\"a\" + \"b\"), \"c\""]

A sort expression can also be the column label

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [(sql/as '(+ :a :b) :sum) :c]
    (sql/from :table-1)
    (sql/order-by :sum))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT (\"a\" + \"b\") AS \"sum\", \"c\" FROM \"table-1\" ORDER BY \"sum\""]

or the number of an output column.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:a '(max :b)]
    (sql/from :table-1)
    (sql/group-by :a)
    (sql/order-by 1))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT \"a\", max(\"b\") FROM \"table-1\" GROUP BY \"a\" ORDER BY 1"]

* Having clause

Groups can be restricted via a /HAVING/ clause.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:city '(max :temp-lo)]
    (sql/from :weather)
    (sql/group-by :city)
    (sql/having '(< (max :temp-lo) 40)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT \"city\", max(\"temp-lo\") FROM \"weather\" GROUP BY \"city\" HAVING (max(\"temp-lo\") < 40)"]

* Values

A bare /VALUES/ command.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/values my-db [[1 "one"] [2 "two"] [3 "three"]])
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["VALUES (1, ?), (2, ?), (3, ?)" "one" "two" "three"]

This will return a table of two columns and three rows. It's
effectively equivalent to.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/union
   {:all true}
   (sql/select my-db [(sql/as 1 :column1) (sql/as "one" :column2)])
   (sql/select my-db [(sql/as 2 :column1) (sql/as "two" :column2)])
   (sql/select my-db [(sql/as 3 :column1) (sql/as "three" :column2)]))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT 1 AS \"column1\", ? AS \"column2\" UNION ALL SELECT 2 AS \"column1\", ? AS \"column2\" UNION ALL SELECT 3 AS \"column1\", ? AS \"column2\"" "one" "two" "three"]

More usually, /VALUES/ is used within a larger SQL command. The most
common use is in /INSERT/.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/insert my-db :films []
    (sql/values [{:code "T-601"
                  :title "Yojimbo"
                  :did 106
                  :date-prod "1961-06-16"
                  :kind "Drama"}]))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["INSERT INTO \"films\" (\"code\", \"date-prod\", \"did\", \"kind\", \"title\") VALUES (?, ?, 106, ?, ?)" "T-601" "1961-06-16" "Drama" "Yojimbo"]

In the context of /INSERT/, entries of a /VALUES/ list can be
/DEFAULT/ to indicate that the column default should be used here
instead of specifying a value.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/insert my-db :films []
    (sql/values [["UA502" "Bananas" 105 :DEFAULT "Comedy" "82 minutes"]
                 ["T_601" "Yojimbo" 106 :DEFAULT "Drama" :DEFAULT]]))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["INSERT INTO \"films\" VALUES (?, ?, 105, DEFAULT, ?, ?), (?, ?, 106, DEFAULT, ?, DEFAULT)" "UA502" "Bananas" "Comedy" "82 minutes" "T_601" "Yojimbo" "Drama"]

/VALUES/ can also be used where a sub /SELECT/ might be written,
for example in a /FROM/ clause:

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:f.*]
    (sql/from (sql/as :films :f)
              (sql/as (sql/values [["MGM" "Horror"] ["UA" "Sci-Fi"]])
                      :t [:studio :kind]))
    (sql/where '(and (= :f.studio :t.studio)
                     (= :f.kind :t.kind))))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT \"f\".* FROM \"films\" \"f\", (VALUES (?, ?), (?, ?)) AS \"t\" (\"studio\", \"kind\") WHERE ((\"f\".\"studio\" = \"t\".\"studio\") and (\"f\".\"kind\" = \"t\".\"kind\"))" "MGM" "Horror" "UA" "Sci-Fi"]

Note that an /AS/ clause is required when /VALUES/ is used in a
/FROM/ clause, just as is true for /SELECT/. It is not required
that the /AS/ clause specify names for all the columns, but it's
good practice to do so. (The default column names for /VALUES/ are
column1, column2, etc in PostgreSQL, but these names might be
different in other database systems.)

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/update my-db :employees
    {:salary '(* :salary :v.increase)}
    (sql/from (sql/as (sql/values [[1 200000 1.2] [2 400000 1.4]])
                      :v [:depno :target :increase]))
    (sql/where '(and (= :employees.depno :v.depno)
                     (>= :employees.sales :v.target))))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["UPDATE \"employees\" SET \"salary\" = (\"salary\" * \"v\".\"increase\") FROM (VALUES (1, 200000, 1.2), (2, 400000, 1.4)) AS \"v\" (\"depno\", \"target\", \"increase\") WHERE ((\"employees\".\"depno\" = \"v\".\"depno\") and (\"employees\".\"sales\" >= \"v\".\"target\"))"]

When /VALUES/ is used in /INSERT/, the values are all
automatically coerced to the data type of the corresponding
destination column. When it's used in other contexts, it might be
necessary to specify the correct data type. If the entries are all
quoted literal constants, coercing the first is sufficient to
determine the assumed type for all:

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/select my-db [:*]
    (sql/from :machines)
    (sql/where `(in :ip-address
                    ~(sql/values [['(cast "192.168.0.1" :inet)]
                                  ["192.168.0.10"]
                                  ["192.168.1.43"]]))))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["SELECT * FROM \"machines\" WHERE \"ip-address\" IN (VALUES (CAST(? AS INET)), (?), (?))" "192.168.0.1" "192.168.0.10" "192.168.1.43"]

* With Queries / Common table expressions

You can compose more complex /SQL/ statements with common table
expressions.

Define the =regional-sales= and =top-regions= helper functions.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent
  (defn regional-sales [db]
    (sql/select db [:region (sql/as '(sum :amount) :total-sales)]
      (sql/from :orders)
      (sql/group-by :region)))
#+END_SRC

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports code :results silent
  (defn top-regions [db]
    (sql/select db [:region]
      (sql/from :regional-sales)
      (sql/where `(> :total-sales
                     ~(sql/select db ['(/ (sum :total-sales) 10)]
                        (sql/from :regional-sales))))))
#+END_SRC

And use them in a common table expression.

#+BEGIN_SRC clojure :exports both :results verbatim
  (sql/with my-db [:regional-sales (regional-sales my-db)
                   :top-regions (top-regions my-db)]
    (sql/select my-db [:region :product
                       (sql/as '(sum :quantity) :product-units)
                       (sql/as '(sum :amount) :product-sales)]
      (sql/from :orders)
      (sql/where `(in :region ~(sql/select my-db [:region]
                                 (sql/from :top-regions))))
      (sql/group-by :region :product)))
#+END_SRC

#+RESULTS:
: ["WITH \"regional-sales\" AS (SELECT \"region\", sum(\"amount\") AS \"total-sales\" FROM \"orders\" GROUP BY \"region\"), \"top-regions\" AS (SELECT \"region\" FROM \"regional-sales\" WHERE (\"total-sales\" > (SELECT (sum(\"total-sales\") / 10) FROM \"regional-sales\"))) SELECT \"region\", \"product\", sum(\"quantity\") AS \"product-units\", sum(\"amount\") AS \"product-sales\" FROM \"orders\" WHERE \"region\" IN (SELECT \"region\" FROM \"top-regions\") GROUP BY \"region\", \"product\""]

For more complex examples, look at the [[https://github.com/r0man/sqlingvo/blob/master/test/sqlingvo][tests]].

** License

Copyright © 2012-2016 [[https://github.com/r0man]]

Distributed under the Eclipse Public License, the same as Clojure.